Peer-review publications


  1. Miyake, F., Usoskin, I. and Poluianov, S. (eds.), Extreme Solar Particle Storms, IOP Publishing, 2019, doi: 10.1088/2514-3433/ab404a


  1. Golubenko, K., E. Rozanov, I. Mironova, A. Karagodin, I. Usoskin, Natural Sources of Ionization and Their Impact on Atmospheric Electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088619, doi: 10.1029/2020GL088619.
  2. Usoskin, I.G., S.A. Koldobskiy, G.A. Kovaltsov, E.V. Rozanov, T.V. Sukhodolov, A.L. Mishev, I.A. Mironova, Revisited Reference Solar Proton Event of 23 February 1956: Assessment of the Cosmogenic‐Isotope Method Sensitivity to Extreme Solar Events, J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2020JA027921. doi: 10.1029/2020JA027921.
  3. Aguilar, M.,… Poluianov, S.,… Usoskin, I. et al. (AMS Collaboration), Properties of Neon, Magnesium, and Silicon Primary Cosmic Rays Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 211102, 2020, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.211102.
  4. Mishev, A.L., I.G. Usoskin, Current status and possible extension of the global neutron monitor network (Strategic and programming article), J. Space Weather Space Clim. 10, 17, 2020, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2020020.
  5. Huang, X., I. Usoskin, L.Y. Zhang, H.N. Wang, Big Data Processing and Modeling in Solar Physics, Adv. Astron., 2020, 6967925, 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/6967925.
  6. Mishev, A., Velinov, P., Ionization Effect in the Region of Regener–Pfotzer Maximum due to Cosmic Rays during Halloween GLE Events in October-November 2003, Comptes rendus de l’Academie bulgare des Sciences, 73, No. 2, 244-251, 2020, doi:10.7546/CRABS.2020.02.13.
  7. Mishev, A.L., S.A. Koldobskiy, G.A. Kovaltsov, A. Gil, I.G. Usoskin, Updated Neutron-Monitor Yield Function: Bridging Between In Situ and Ground-Based Cosmic Ray Measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 125, e2019JA027433, 2020, doi: 10.1029/2019JA027433
  8. Kocharov, L., M. Pesce-Rollins, T. Laitinen, A. Mishev, P. Kühl, A. Klassen, M. Jin, N. Omodei, F. Longo, D.F. Webb, H.V. Cane, B. Heber, R. Vainio, and I. Usoskin, Interplanetary Protons versus Interacting Protons in the 2017 September 10 Solar Eruptive Event, Astrophys. J., 890, 13, 2020, doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab684e
  9. Frick, P., D. Sokoloff, R. Stepanov, V. Pipin and I. Usoskin, Spectral characteristic of mid-term quasi-periodicities in sunspot data, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 491, 5572-5578, 2020, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stz3238


  1. Aguilar, M.,… Poluianov, S.,… Usoskin, I. et al. (AMS Collaboration), Properties of Cosmic Helium Isotopes Measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Phys. Rev. Lett., 123, 121102, 2019, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.181102
  2. Mishev, A., P. Jiggens, Preface to measurement, specification and forecasting of the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) environment and Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), J. Space Weather Space Clim.,9, E1, 2019, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2019003
  3. Mironova, I.A., A.A. Artamonov, G. A. Bazilevskaya, E. V. Rozanov, G.A. Kovaltsov, V. S. Makhmutov, A. L. Mishev, A. V. Karagodin, Ionization of the Polar Atmosphere by Energetic Electron Precipitation Retrieved From Balloon Measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 990-996, 2019, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079421
  4. Mishev, A., I. Usoskin, Analysis of sub-GLE and GLE events using NM data: space weather applications, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1181, 012006, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1181/1/012006
  5. Dorman, L.I., Y. Tassev, P. I. Y. Velinov, A. Mishev, D. Tomova, L. Mateev, Investigation of exceptional solar activity in September 2017: GLE 72 and unusual Forbush decrease in GCR, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1181, 012070, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1181/1/012070
  6. Mironova, I., G. Bazilevskaya, G. Kovaltsov, A. Artamonov, E. Rozanov, A. Mishev, V.S. Makhmutov, A. Karagodin, K. Golubenko, Spectra of high energy electron precipitation and atmospheric ionization rates retrieval from balloon measurements, Sci. Total Env., 693, 133242, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.048
  7. Palmroth, M., J. Praks, R. Vainio, P. Janhunen, E.K.J. Kilpua, N.Yu. Ganushkina, …, S. Poluianov et al., FORESAIL-1 cubesat mission to measure radiation belt losses and demonstrate de-orbiting, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 124, 5783–5799, 2019, doi: 10.1029/2018JA026354.
  8. Koldobskiy, S.A., G.A. Kovaltsov, A.L. Mishev, I.G. Usoskin, New Method of Assessment of the Integral Fluence of Solar Energetic (>1 GV Rigidity) Particles from Neutron Monitor Data, Sol. Phys., 294:, 94, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11207-019-1485-8.
  9. Mishev, A., I. Usoskin, S. Tuohino and A. Ibragimov, The upgraded GLE database includes assessment of radiation exposure at flight altitudes, J. Phys.: Conf. Series, 1181, 012061, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1181/1/012061.
  10. Pevtsov, A., E. Griffin, J. Grindlay, S. Kafka, J. Bartlett, I. Usoskin, K. Mursula, S. Gibson, V. Pillet, J. Burkepile, D. Webb, F. Clette, J. Hesser, Historical astronomical data: urgent need for preservation, digitization enabling scientific exploration, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc., 51, 190, 2019.
  11. Koldobsky, S., V. Bindi, C. Corti, G. Kovaltsov, I. Usoskin, Validation of the Neutron Monitor Yield Function Using Data From AMS-02 Experiment, 2011-2017, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.), 124, 2367-2379, 2019, doi: /10.1029/2018JA026340.
  12. Jiggens, P., C. Clavie, H. Evans, et al., In situ data and effect correlation during September 2017 solar particle event, Space Weather, 17, 99-117, 2019, doi: 10.1029/2018SW001936.
  13. Väisänen, P., I. Usoskin, K. Mursula, Long-term and solar cycle variation of galactic cosmic rays: Evidence for variable heliospheric turbulence, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 124, 2019, doi: 10.1029/2018JA026135.
  14. Mironova, I.A., A.A. Artamonov, G.A. Bazilevskaya, E.V. Rozanov, G.A. Kovaltsov, V.S. Makhmutov, A.L. Mishev, A.V. Karagodin, Ionization of the polar atmosphere by energetic electron precipitation retrieved from balloon measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 2019, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079421.


  1. Wu, C.-J., N.A. Krivova, S.K. Solanki, I.G. Usoskin, Solar total and spectral irradiance reconstruction over the last 9000 years, Astron. Astrophys., 620, A120, 2018, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201832956.
  2. Mishev, A. L., and I.G. Usoskin, Assessment of the radiation environment at commercial jet-flight altitudes during GLE 72 on 10 September 2017 using neutron monitor data, Space Weather, 16, 2018, doi: 10.1029/2018SW001946.
  3. Gil, A., G.A. Kovaltsov, V.V. Mikhailov, A. Mishev, S. Poluianov and I.G. Usoskin, An Anisotropic Cosmic-Ray Enhancement Event on 07-June-2015: A Possible Origin, Solar Phys., 293, 154, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11207-018-1375-5.
  4. Poluianov, S., Kovaltsov, G.A., Usoskin, I.G., Solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays over millions of years as inferred from data on cosmogenic 26Al in lunar samples, Astron. Astrophys., 618, A96, 2018, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201833561.
  5. Mishev, A., S. Tuohino, I. Usoskin, Neutron monitor count rate increase as a proxy for dose rate assessment at aviation altitudes during GLEs, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 8, A46, 2018, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2018032.
  6. Mishev, A., Velinov, P.I.Y., Ionization Effects in the Middle Stratosphere due to Cosmic Rays during Strong GLE Events, Comptes rendus de l’Acade’mie bulgare des Sciences, 71, 4, pp.523-528, 2018, doi: 10.7546/CRABS.2018.04.11.
  7. Mishev, A., I. Usoskin, O. Raukunen, M. Paassilta, E. Valtonen, L. Kocharov, R. Vainio, First Analysis of Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) 72 on 10 September 2017: Spectral and Anisotropy Characteristics, Solar Phys., 293, 136, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11207-018-1354-x.
  8. Uusitalo, J., L. Arppe, T. Hackman, S. Helama, G. Kovaltsov, K. Mielikäinen, H. Mäkinen, P. Nöjd, V. Palonen, I. Usoskin, M. Oinonen, Solar superstorm of AD 774 recorded subannually by Arctic tree rings, Nature Comm., 9, 3495, 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05883-1.
  9. Kocharov, L., S. Pohjolainen, M.J. Reiner, A. Mishev, H. Wang, I. Usoskin, R. Vainio, Spatial Organization of Seven Extreme Solar Energetic Particle Events, Astrophys. J. Lett., 862, L20, 2018. doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad18d.
  10. Usoskin, I.G., Comment on the paper by Popova et al. “On a role of quadruple component of magnetic field in defining solar activity in grand cycles”, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 176, 69-71, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2017.09.018.
  11. Koldobskiy, S.A., G.A. Kovaltsov, I.G. Usoskin, Effective rigidity of a polar neutron monitor for recording Ground-level enhancements, Solar Phys., 293, 110, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11207-018-1326-1.
  12. Koldobskiy, S.A., G.A. Kovaltsov, I.G. Usoskin, A solar cycle of cosmic ray fluxes for 2006-2014: Comparison between PAMELA and neutron monitors, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 123, 4479-4487, 2018. doi: 10.1029/2018JA025516.
  13. Wu, C.-J., I. G. Usoskin, N. Krivova, G.A. Kovaltsov, M. Baroni, E. Bard, S.K. Solanki, Solar activity over nine millennia: A consistent multi-proxy reconstruction, Astron. Astrophys., 615, A93, 2018. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201731892.
  14. Egorova, T., W. Schmutz, E. Rozanov, A.I. Shapiro, I. Usoskin, et al., Revised historical solar irradiance forcing, Astron. Astrophys., 615, A85, 2018. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201731199.
  15. Tuohino, S., A. Ibragimov, I. Usoskin, A. Mishev, Upgrade of GLE database: Assessment of effective dose rate at flight altitude, Adv. Space Res., 62, 398-407, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2018.04.021.
  16. Mishev, A.L., P.I.Y. Velinov, Ion production and ionization effect in the atmosphere during the Bastille day GLE 59 due to high energy SEPs, Adv. Space Res. 61, 316-325, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.023.
  17. Willamo, T., I.G. Usoskin, G.A. Kovaltsov, A Test of the Active-Day Fraction Method of Sunspot Group Number Calibration: Dependence on the Level of Solar Activity, Solar Phys., 293, 69. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11207-018-1292-7.
  18. Katsova, M.M., L.L. Kitchatinov, M.A. Livshits, D.L. Moss, D.D Sokoloff, I.G. Usoskin, Can Superflares Occur on the Sun? A View from Dynamo Theory, Astron. Rep., 62, 72-80, 2018, doi: 10.1134/S106377291801002X.
  19. Acero, F.G., M. C. Gallego, J. A. García, I. G. Usoskin, and J. M. Vaquero, Extreme Value Theory Applied to the Millennial Sunspot Number Series, Astrophys. J., 853, 80, 2018, doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaa406.
  20. Karagodin, A., I. Mironova, A. Artamonov, N. Konstantinova, Response of the total ozone to energetic electron precipitation events, J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 180, 153-158, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2017.12.009.


  1. Owens M.J., M. Lockwood, E. Hawkins, I. Usoskin, G.S. Jones, L. Barnard, A. Schurer, J. Fasullo, The Maunder minimum and the Little Ice Age: an update from recent reconstructions and climate simulations, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 7, A33, 2017, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2017034.
  2. Asvestari, E., A. Gil, G.A. Kovaltsov, I.G. Usoskin, Neutron Monitors and Cosmogenic Isotopes as Cosmic Ray Energy-Integration Detectors: Effective Yield Functions, Effective Energy, and Its Dependence on the Local Interstellar Spectrum, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 120, 9790-9802, 2017, doi: 10.1002/2017JA024469.
  3. Jungclaus, J.H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, et al., The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005-4033, 2017. doi: 10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017.
  4. Poluianov, S., Usoskin, I., Mishev, A., Shea, M., Smart, D., GLE and Sub-GLE Redefinition in the Light of High-Altitude Polar Neutron Monitors, Solar Phys., 292 (11), 2017, doi: 10.1007/s11207-017-1202-4.
  5. Mishev, A., S. Poluianov, I. Usoskin Assessment of spectral and angular characteristics of sub-GLE events using the global neutron monitor network, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 7, A28, 2017, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2017026.
  6. Matthes, K., B. Funke, M.E. Andersson, et al., Solar forcing for CMIP6 (v3.2), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2247-2302, 2017, doi: 10.5194/gmd-10-2247-2017.
  7. Asvestari. E., T. Willamo, A. Gil, I.G. Usoskin, G.A. Kovaltsov, V.V. Mikhailov, A. Mayorov, Analysis of Ground Level Enhancements (GLE): Extreme solar energetic particle events have hard spectra, Adv. Space Res., 60, 781-787, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2016.08.043.
  8. Chatzistergos, T., I.G. Usoskin, G.A. Kovaltsov, N.A. Krivova and S.K. Solanki, New reconstruction of the sunspot group numbers since 1739 using direct calibration and “backbone” methods, Astron. Astrophys., 602, A69, 2017, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201630045.
  9. Usoskin, I.G., A. Gil, G.A. Kovaltsov, A. Mishev, V.V. Mikhailov, Heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays during the neutron monitor era: Calibration using PAMELA data for 2006-2010, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122, 3875-3887, 2017, doi: 10.1002/2016JA023819
  10. Willamo, T., I.G. Usoskin, G. A. Kovaltsov, Updated sunspot group number reconstruction for 1749-1996 using the active day fraction method, Astron, Astrophys., 601, A109, 2017, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629839
  11. Kocharov, L., S. Pohjolainen, A. Mishev, M.J. Reiner, J. Lee, T. Laitinen, L.V. Didkovsky, V.J. Pizzo, R. Kim, A. Klassen, M. Karlicky, K. Cho, D.E. Gary, I. Usoskin, E. Valtonen and R. Vainio, Investigating the Origins of Two Extreme Solar Particle Events: Proton Source Profile and Associated Electromagnetic Emissions, Astrophys. J., 839, 79, 2016, doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa6a13.
  12. Sukhodolov, T. I.G. Usoskin, E. Rozanov, E. Asvestari, W.T. Ball, M.A.J. Curran, H. Fischer, G. Kovaltsov, F. Miyake, T. Peter, C. Plummer, W. Schmutz, M. Severi, R. Traversi, Atmospheric impacts of the strongest known solar particle storm of 775 AD, Sci. Rep., 7, 45257, 2017. doi: 10.1038/srep45257.
  13. Lockwood, M., M. Owens, E. Hawkins, G.S. Jones and I.G. Usoskin, Frost fairs, sunspots and the Little Ice Age, Astron. Geophys., 58, 2.17-2.23, 2017, doi: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx057
  14. Usoskin, I.G. A history of solar activity over millennia, Living Rev. Sol. Phys. 14, 3, 2017 doi:10.1007/s41116-017-0006-9
  15. Leussu, R., I.G. Usoskin, V. Senthamizh Pavai, A. Diercke, R. Arlt, C. Denker, K. Mursula, Wings of the butterfly: Sunspot groups for 1826–2015, Astron. Astrophys., 599, A131, 2017, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629533.
  16. Asvestari, E., I.G. Usoskin, G.A. Kovaltsov, M.J. Owens, N.A. Krivova, S. Rubinetti, C. Taricco, Assessment of different sunspot number series using the cosmogenic isotope 44Ti in meteorites, Mon. Not. Royal. Astron. Soc., 467, 1608-1613, 2017, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx190.
  17. Usoskin, I.G., G.A. Kovaltsov, L.N. Mishina, D.D. Sokoloff, J. Vaquero, An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora, Solar Phys., 292, 15, 2017 (doi: 10.1007/s11207-016-1035-6).
  18. Artamonov, A., Mironova, I., Kovaltsov, G., Mishev, A., Plotnikov, E., Konstantinova, N., Calculation of atmospheric ionization induced by electrons with non-vertical precipitation : Updated model CRAC-EPII, Adv. Space Res. 59, 2295-2300, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.02.019.


  1. Usoskin, I.G., U G.A. Kovaltsov, T. Chatzistergos, Dependence of the Sunspot-Group Size on the Level of Solar Activity and its Influence on the Calibration of Solar Observers, Solar Phys., 291, 3793-3805, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11207-016-0993-z.
  2. Usoskin, I.G., G.A. Kovaltsov, M. Lockwood, K. Mursula, M. Owens, S.K. Solanki, A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions, Solar Phys., 291, 2685-2708, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11207-015-0838-1.
  3. Lockwood, M., M.J. Owens, L. Barnard, I.G. Usoskin, Tests of Sunspot Number Sequences: 3. Effects of Regression Procedures on the Calibration of Historic Sunspot Data, Solar Phys., 291, 2829-2841, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11207-015-0829-2.
  4. Lockwood, M., M.J. Owens, L. Barnard, C.J. Scott, I.G. Usoskin, H. Nevanlinna, Tests of Sunspot Number Sequences: 2. Using Geomagnetic and Auroral Data, Solar Phys., 291, 2811-2828, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11207-016-0913-2.
  5. Artamonov, A., A. Mishev, I.G. Usoskin, Atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating electrons: Comparison of CRAC:EPII model with a parametrization model, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 149, 161-166, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.04.020.
  6. Yaniv, R., Y. Yair, C. Price, K. Nicoll, G. Harrison, A. Artamonov, I. Usoskin, Balloon measurements of the vertical ionization profile over southern Israel and comparison to mid-latitude observations, J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 149, 87-92, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2016.10.003
  7. Leussu, R., I.G. Usoskin, R. Arlt, K. Mursula, Properties of sunspot cycles and hemispheric wings since the 19th century, Astron. Astrophys., 592, A160, 2016, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201628335.
  8. Poluianov, S.V., G.A. Kovaltsov, A.L. Mishev and I.G. Usoskin, Production of cosmogenic isotopes 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, and 36Cl in the atmosphere: Altitudinal profiles of yield functions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 8125-8136, 2016, doi:10.1002/2016JD025034.
  9. Owens, M.J., E. Cliver, K. G. McCracken, J. Beer, L. Barnard, M. Lockwood, A. Rouillard, D. Passos, P. Riley, I. Usoskin, and Y-M. Wang, Near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field intensity since 1750: 1. Sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 6048-6063, doi:10.1002/2016JA022529.
  10. Owens, M.J., E. Cliver, K. G. McCracken, J. Beer, L. Barnard, M. Lockwood, A. Rouillard, D. Passos, P. Riley, I. Usoskin, and Y-M. Wang, Near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field intensity since 1750: 2. Cosmogenic radionuclide reconstructions, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 6064-6074, doi:10.1002/2016JA022550.
  11. Lockwood, M., M. J. Owens, L. Barnard, and I. G. Usoskin, An assessment of sunspot number data composites over 1845-2014, Astrophys. J., 824, 54, 2016, doi:10.3847/0004-637X/824/1/54
  12. Mishev, A.L., I. G. Usoskin, Analysis of the Ground-Level Enhancements on 14 July 2000 and 13 December 2006 Using Neutron Monitor Data, Solar Physics, 291, 1225-1239, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11207-016-0877-2.
  13. Artamonov, A.A., A. L. Mishev, I. G. Usoskin, Model CRAC:EPII for atmospheric ionization due to precipitating electrons: Yield function and applications, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 1736-1743, doi: 10.1002/2015JA022276, 2016.
  14. Usoskin, I.G., Y. Gallet, F. Lopes, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Hulot, Solar activity during the Holocene: the Hallstatt cycle and its consequence for grand minima and maxima, Astron. Astrophys., 587, A150, 2016, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201527295.
  15. Asvestari, E. and I.G. Usoskin, An empirical model of heliospheric cosmic ray modulation on long-term time scale. J. Space Weather Space Clim., 6, A15, 2016, doi: 10.1051/swsc/2016011.
  16. Artamonov, A.A., G. A. Kovaltsov, A. L. Mishev, I. G. Usoskin, Neutron monitor yield function for solar neutrons: A new computation, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 117-128, 2016, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021993.
  17. Traversi, R., S. Becagli, S. Poluianov, M. Severi, S.K. Solanki, I.G. Usoskin and R. Udisti, The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion featured in nitrate record from EPICA-Dome C ice core, Sci. Rep., 6, 20235, 2016, doi: 10.1038/srep20235.
  18. Mishev A.L., Contribution of cosmic ray particles to radiation environment at high mountain altitude: Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with experimental data, J. Environmental Radioactivity 153, 15–22, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.12.002.
  19. Mishev A., Velinov P., Ionization effect due to cosmic rays during Bastille Day Event : GLE 59 on short and mid time scales, Comptes Rendus de L’Académie Bulgare des Sciences 69, 1479–1484, 2016.